Development and application of TERS/TEPL technique for advanced characterization of materials

TERS/TEPL (Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Tip-Enhanced Photoluminescence) are powerful analytical techniques developed for nanoscale material characterization. The recent acquisition of a unique and versatile TERS/TEPL equipment at PFNC (Nano-characterization Platform) of CEA LETI opens up new horizons for materials characterization. This tool combines Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning probe microscopy. It features multi-wavelength capabilities (from UV to NIR), allowing a wide range of applications and providing unparalleled insights into the composition, structure, and mechanical/electrical properties of materials at nanoscale resolution. The current project aims to develop and accelerate the implementation of the TERS/TEPL techniques at PFNC to fully exploit its potential in diverse ongoing projects at CEA-Grenoble (LETI/LITEN/IRIG) and with its partners.

Developement of relaxed pseudo-substrate based on InGaN porosified by electrochemical anodisation

As part of the Carnot PIRLE project starting in early 2021, we are looking for a candidate for a post-doctoral position of 24 months (12 months renewable) with a specialty in material science. The project consists in developing a relaxed pseudo-substrate based on III-N materials for µLEDs applications, especially for emission in red wavelength. The work will focus on developing an InGaN-based epitaxy MOCVD growth process, on an innovative substrate based on electrochemically anodized and relaxed materials. He (She) will have characterize both the level of relaxation of the re-epitaxied layer and its crystalline quality. These two points will promote the epitaxial regrowth of an effective red LED. The candidate will be part of the team, working on the PIRLE project, will be associated to the work on red LED growth and its optical and electro-optical characterizations.

Advanced tandem time of flight mass spectrometry for microelectronic applications

The CEA LETI seeks to recruit a post-doctoral researcher to work on the development of advanced time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry applications (TOF-SIMS). The candidate will work on a new TOF-SIMS instrument equipped with tandem MS spectrometry, in-situ FIB and Argon cluster sputtering. The research project will be focused around the following topics

• Developing methods to correlate TOF-SIMS with AFM, XPS and Auger
• Improving the sensitivity and efficiency of fragmention of the tandem MS spectrometer
• Developing 3D FIB-TOF-SIMS applications and improving the spatial resolution.
The candidate will also have access to the wide range of state of the art instruments present on the nanocharacterisation platform as well as bespoke samples coming from the advanced technology branches developed at the LETI. The candidate will also benefit from a collaboration with the instrument supplier.

Compressed Sensing Electron Tomography: Quantitative Multi-dimensional Characterization of Nanomaterials

Electron tomography (ET) is a well-established technique for the 3D morphological characterization at the nanoscale. ET applied to spectroscopic modes for 3D structural and chemical analysis has become a hot topic but necessitates long exposure times and high beam currents. In this project, we will explore advanced compressed sensing (CS) approaches in order to improve the resolution of spectroscopic ET and reduce significantly the dose. More precisely, we will focus on the following two tasks: 1. Comparison of total variation minimization, orthogonal or undecimated wavelets, 3D curvelets or ridgelets and shearlets for nano-objects with different structures/textures; 2. Comparison of PCA and novel CS-inspired methods such as sparse PCA for dimensionality reduction and spectral un-mixing. The code will be written in Python, using Hyperspy (hyperspy.org) and PySAP (https://github.com/CEA-COSMIC/pysap) libraries.
The project follows a multidisciplinary approach that involves the strong expertise of the coordinator in ET and the input of two collaborators with complementary skills: Philippe Ciuciu with expertise in MRI (DRF/Joliot/NEUROSPIN/Parietal) and Jean-Luc Starck with expertise in cosmology, signal processing and applied maths (DRF/IRFU/DAP/CosmoStat). The three communities share a strong interest in compressed sensing algorithms.

Tunnel Junction for UV LEDs: characterization and optimization

Besides existing UV lamps, UV LEDs emitting in the UV-C region (around 265 nm) are considered as the next solutions for cost efficient water sterilization systems. But existing UV-C LEDs based on AlGaN wide band gap materials and related quantum well heterostructures still have low efficiencies which precludes their widespread use in industrial systems.
Analysing the reasons of the low efficiencies of present UV-C LEDs led us to propose a solution based on the use of a Tunnel Junction (TJ) inserted within the AlGaN heterostructure diode. p+/ n+ tunnel junctions are smart solutions to cope with doping related problems in the wide band gap AlGaN materials but give rise to extra tunneling resistances that need to be coped with. The post-doctoral work is dedicated to understanding the physics of tunneling processes in the TJ itself for a better control of the tunneling current.
The post-doctoral work will be carried out at the “Plate-Forme de Nanocaractérization” in CEA/ Grenoble, using different optical, structural and electrical measurements on stand-alone TJs or on TJs inserted within LEDs. The candidate will have to interact strongly with the team in CNRS/CRHEA in Sophia Antipolis where epitaxial growth of the diodes will be undertaken. The work is part of a collaborative project named "DUVET" financed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR).

Physisorption of chemical species on sensitive surfaces during transfer in controlled mini-environment in microelectronics industry

A characterization platform based on the connection concept between process and characterization tools through the use of a transfer box under vacuum was implemented allowing a quasi in-situ characterization of substrates (wafers) of the microelectronics. Currently, this transfer concept based simply on static vacuum inside a carrier box is satisfactory regarding the residual O or C on the surface of especially sensitive materials (Ge, Ta, Sb, Ti…) and the MOCVD layers growth on GST or III/V surfaces. Its optimization for more stringent applications (molecular bonding, epitaxy…) in terms of contamination surface prevention requires studies the understanding of the physico-chemical evolution of the surfaces.
The proposed work will be focused on physico chemical studies of the evolution and molecular contamination of surfaces during transfers and will take place in clean room. XPS, TD-GCMS and MS coupled to the carrier itself (to be implemented) will be used to address the sources (wall, seals, gaseous environment…) of the adsorbed chemical species implied and to determine the physisorption mechanisms on the substrates. The studied surfaces will be sensitive to the contaminants in such a way than the box environment impact will be extracted and studied parameters will be the nature of polymer seal used, the carrier box thermal conditioning, the vacuum level, the use of low pressure gaseous environment in the carrier (gas nature, pressure level…).

Charge to spin conversion in HgTe topological insulators

The intrinsic spin-momentum locking of Dirac fermions at the surface or interface of topological insulators opens the path towards novel spintronic effects and applications.
Strained HgTe/CdTe is a model topological insulator and a very good candidate to design and demonstrate new spintronic devices exploiting the very large charge to spin conversion efficiency expected for such 2D systems. This postdoc position aims at realizing the first demonstration of the direct charge to spin conversion in topological HgTe nanostructures and use this demonstration as a building block for spin based logic elements.

Outgassing studies for advanced lithography

This work address a "post doc" person. The frame work of this subject is a advanced lithography multifaisceaux Ebeam development project. Within this project framework, an multiEbeam tool is developed in a international partnership context.
Strong contamination constraints of the projection optic are identified due to resists outgassing during theirs activations by electronic expositions. Layers contamination due to resists outgassing will be studied. The candidate will be in charge to carry out outgassing studies on various resist samples in support to the existing team and using Leti outgassing studies tool and characterization tools available on Leti (BEM, XPS, interferometer,...).
Candidate will implement methodologies already developed in Leti (pumping speed, outgassed elements identification,...) and will make contribution to improvement all of these methods. It will also supervise realization of objects useful for outgassing studies(Ebeam projection optics simulator) which will be carried on Leti. The candidate will carry out electron beam characterization on the outgassing tool and could be force of proposal for improvement. He will also take charges characterization of contaminants layers. The candidate will evolved in advanced lithography context and will be in close collaboration with international teams. English is needed.

Selective removal of metal alloy for advanced silicidation applied to sub-20nm CMOS transistors

CMOS transistor performances depend on electrical contact resistivity reduction. Thus, self aligned silicidation (salicide) is one of the key processes which have to be improved to meet the ITRS requirements for the future technological nodes. Nowadays, solid state reaction between thin metal layer (Ni1-yPty < 10nm) and a silicon substrate allows to decrease access resistances of transistor source & drain. The metal is currently deposited by physical vapor deposition method all over the wafer surface. Under heat treatment, metal reacts preferably with semiconductor areas rather than dielectrics ones. Then, unreacted metal layer is selectively etched with an appropriate acidic solution; only metal silicide remains.As new specifications (use of ultra-thin Ni-alloy,very low temperature process leading to partial salicidation, use of various additive metals ...)are required for advanced nodes (C20nm & C14nm), the capability to chemically remove the excess of metal on dielectric areas has to be investigated. In the clean room environment of CEA-LETI (Grenoble, France), the candidate will work on innovative wet chemistries to remove selectively the different metallic layers (Ni, Pd, NiCo, NiPd…). In a first time preliminary test will be conducted on sample in manual tank in order to check removal kinetic and global selectivity on structures devices… Based on several characterization techniques (TXRF, XRR, AFM, SEM, TEM, XRD…), residual additive interaction with dielectric and chemical mixture behavior towards the metal rich phase on silicided area (roughness, resistivity) will be studied. Different semi-conductor (Si, SiGe…) and dielectrics surfaces (SiO2, SixNy…) will be investigated. Afterwards the most promising selective processes will be selected to be installed on a fully automatic 300mm tool. Finally, best processes will be integrated on critical patterned wafer architectures for morphological and electrical characterizations.

Development of new processes for the fabrication of advanced interconnect structures of solar cells

The fabrication of solar cells with high performances at a reduced cost is a key challenge addressed by many research institutions and industrials worldwide. Many technological solutions are being investigated. Among them, a promising approach consists in forming narrower metal lines to limit shadowing of active areas of the cells. This work aims at replacing serigraphy by new fabrication processes able to reduce line width. For this purpose, the conducting substrate is coated by an insulating mask in which the lines are defined. The metal is then directly plated selectively onto the weakly conducting portions of the substrate, i.e. the lines, using electrolytic or electroless reactions. The process conditions will be adapted with regard to the nature of the initial conducting surfaces.

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