The 3D printing of stimuli-responsive materials is called “4D printing” and is of great interest for the development of innovative medical devices (dynamic synthetic tissues, soft robotic actuators, controlled drug release systems etc.). Reported examples of these printable smart materials are programmed to autonomously change their shape in response to specific stimuli (e.g. temperature, light, magnetic field, pH, etc.) but are almost exclusively based on synthetic polymers.
To transpose this concept to biomedical application, this PhD project aims at designing 3D printable, biocompatible and stimuli-responsive polysaccharide hydrogels. In particular, the targeted hydrogels will be able to deform under two different stimuli: (i) a temperature variation or (ii) the application of a near-infrared (NIR) beam for the material activation without deterioration of biological tissues. These will be achieved by combining (i) polysaccharide chains functionalized with thermoresponsive groups and (ii) photothermal nanoparticles capable of converting NIR light into heat.
This interdisciplinary project is at the interface between Chemistry (polymer chemistry, nanoparticle synthesis), Physical Chemistry (formulation and characterization of hydrogels), Materials Science (3D printing studies, mechanical tests) and Biology (cytocompatibility studies). An additional originality is that the experimental data collected by the PhD candidate will be fed into artificial intelligence tools which, in turn, should provide guidelines to accelerate the discovery of the targeted materials.