The James Webb Space Telescope has revealed the presence of spiral galaxies very early in the history of the universe (up to redshifts greater than z=5). The appearance of disks so early on is surprising, as they are fragile structures, and seems to reinforce the idea that angular momentum is contributed by the accretion of intergalactic matter. This phenomenon of accretion through cooled filaments could explain several unexpected results from the James Webb. It could also be at the origin of the universal star formation, known as secular star formation, observed in galaxies in the form of a correlation between star formation rate and stellar mass (main sequence of star formation, MS). They would provide the reservoirs for star formation and help regulate it. This represents a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the origin of galaxy shapes and their star formation history. During this thesis, we will address this question through the access to data from the James Webb, Euclid and numerical models to test this hypothesis. It should be noted that without this type of explanation for the high efficiency of galaxy formation observed by the James Webb, we would have to invoke much more drastic changes that could open up a new field. This thesis will help to determine this.