The large-scale use of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for vehicle engines requires the development of new catalysts. Indeed, the high costs of PEMFCs are mainly linked to the use of a large amount of a noble metal, the platinum, as a catalyst for electrochemical reactions in order to obtain sufficient performance. This Ph.D work deals with the synthesis and the optimization of new catalysts having only a small amount of Pt supported on a carbonaceous material also exhibiting catalytic activity toward the reduction of oxygen. These nitrogen-enriched support carbons comprising a non-noble metal associated with a tiny amount of Platinum should ultimately lead to inexpensive materials. The objective of the Ph.D work is therefore to synthesize and optimize on a large scale carbonaceous catalytic supports and to quantify the number of active sites for the manufacture of catalysts with low platinum loading.