Context: There is a need for very highly-doped semiconductor specimens for the continued development of Si/Ge CMOS devices and for doping III-V materials where the ionisation energy leads to a low concentration of carriers. In order to provide these highly doped specimens, new growth and implantion methods are required. These need to be better understood and characterised with nm-scale resolution.
Proposed Subject: We will combine various (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S)TEM techniques, such as electron holography, precession electron diffraction, spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging on the same specimen. Advanced data processing techniques will be developed in order to combine the different maps to provide information about the total dopant concentration, the quantity of dopants on substitutional sites, and the active dopant concentrations. This work will provide methodology to assess the effectiveness of the different processes that are used for doping in advanced CMOS research. This includes FD-SOI 10 nm and below, raised and embedded source and drains, Si:P, SiGe:B, Low Temperature / Coolcube.